Abrief history and introduction, and some recipes
main factors have long affected the course of Irish baking. The
first is related to our climate. In this land where the influence
of the Gulf Stream prevents either great extremes of heat in the
summer or cold in the winter, the hard wheats, which need such
extremes to grow, don't prosper. And it's such wheats which make
flour with a high gluten content, producing bread which rises
high and responds well to being
leavened with yeast. Soft wheats, though, have always grown well
other factor, in the last millenium at least, has been the relative
plenty of fuel. The various medieval overlords of Ireland were never
able to exercise the tight control over forest land which landowners
could manage in more populous, less wild areas, like England and
mainland Europe: so firewood could be pretty freely "poached",
and where there was no wood, there was almost always heather, and
usually turf as well. As a result, anyone with a hearthstone could
afford to bake on a small scale, and on demand. The incentive to
together to conserve fuel (and invent the communal bake-oven, a
conservation tool common in more fuel-poor areas of Europe) was
missing in the Irish countryside. Short elapsed baking times, and
baking "at will", were easy.
two factors caused the Irish householder to bypass yeast for everyday
baking, whenever possible. The primary leavening agent became what
is now known here as "bread soda": just plain bicarbonate
of soda, to US and North American users. Hence the name "soda
bread". But for a long time, most of the bread in Ireland was
soda bread -- at least, most of it which was baked at the hearthside
("bakery bread" only being available in the larger cities).
Soda bread was made either "in the pot", in yet another
version of the "cloche" baking which is now coming back
into vogue, but which was long popular all over medieval Europe:
or else on a "bakestone", an iron plate usually rested
directly in/on the embers of a fire. From these two methods are
descended the two main kinds of soda bread eaten in Ireland, both
north and south, to the present day.
Ireland, "plain" soda bread is as likely to be eaten as
an accompaniment to a main meal (to soak up the gravy) as it's likely
to appear at breakfast. It comes in two main colors, brown and white,
and two main types: "cake" and "farl". The latter
are primarily regional differences. People in the south of Ireland
tend to make cake: people up North seem to like farl better (though
both kinds appear in both North and South, sometimes under wildly
differing names). "Cake" is
soda bread kneaded and shaped into a flattish round, then cut with
a cross on the top (to let the bread stretch and expand as it rises
in the oven) and baked on a baking sheet. Farl is rolled out into
a rough circle and cut through, crosswise, into four pieces (the
"farls": farl is a generic term for any triangular piece
of baking) and usually baked in a heavy frying pan or on a griddle,
on top of the range rather than in the oven. You may hear either
of these breads referred to locally as "brown cake", "soda
cake", "soda farl", "brown farl", "wheaten
bread", and any combination of numerous other weird terms.
(Yes, it gets confusing. You learn pretty quickly at the baker's
to point and say, "Please, just give me one of those.")
-- A quick note here, as well: while traveling around my old haunts
in the US, I've noticed that
almost every time someone makes soda bread over there, they automatically
put fruit in it. This is not the normal approach in Ireland. People
do put raisins, currants and so forth in soda bread, but almost
always as a "tea bread", not in the "plain soda"
which is the stuff of everyday consumption.
all this said, the basic bread is extremely simple. The urge to
be resisted is to do more stuff to it than necessary...this is usually
what keeps it from coming out right the first few times. Once you've
mastered the basic mixture, though, you can start adding things,
coming up with wonderful variations like treacle bread and so on.
* * *
the basic recipe for white soda bread. All these measures are approximate:
flour's volume and liquid-absorptive capabilities, in particular,
will vary depending on the local humidity.
g / 1 lb / 3 1/2 cups flour (either cake flour
or all-purpose: but cake flour works better)
1 teaspoon sugar
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda
Between 200-300 ml / 8-10 fluid ounces sour milk,
buttermilk, or plain ("sweet") milk, to mix
is usually the preferred mixing liquid: its acidity helps activate
the bicarb, releasing the CO2 which makes the bread rise.
milk" isn't milk that's gone bad. It's milk which has had a
couple of teaspoons of buttermilk stirred into it, has been put
in a scalded container and wrapped in a towel, and left in some
peaceful corner at about 75 degreesF for 24 hours. The original
Irish name is bainne clabhair (BAHN-yeh clavAIR), "clabbered
milk", or "bonnyclabber" as the Scots have anglicized
it. The flavor isn't quite as tart as
buttermilk, but there's enough acid to make the bicarb react
correctly. If you don't have time to do sour milk, buttermilk will
do perfectly well. "Sweet" or plain milk doesn't work
quite as well, but you can still use it: just add 1/2 teaspoon of
baking powder to the recipe.
decide whether you're making farl or cake. If farl, find your heaviest
griddle or non-sloping-sided frying pan (cast iron is best), and
put it on to preheat at a low-medium heat. (You're going to have
to experiment with settings. Farl should take about 20 minutes per
side to get a slight toasty brown.) If making cake, preheat the
oven to 450 F and find a baking sheet. Full preheating is vital
for soda bread.
the dry ingredients together several times to make sure the bicarb
is evenly distributed. Put the sifted dry ingredients in a good
big bowl (you want stirring room) and make a well in the center.
Pour about three-quarters of the buttermilk or sour milk or whatever
in, and start
stirring. You are trying to achieve a dough that is raggy and very
soft, but the lumps and rags of it should look dryish and "floury",
while still being extremely squishy if you poke them. Add more liquid
sparingly if you think you need it. (You may need more or less according
to conditions: local humidity and temperature, the absorptiveness
of the flour you're using, etc.)
quickly (but not too energetically!) until the whole mass of dough
has become this raggy consistency. Then turn the contents of the
bowl out immediately onto a lightly floured board or work surface,
and start to knead.
chief concern here is speed: the chemical reaction of the bicarb
with the buttermilk started as soon as they met, and you want to
get the bread into the oven while the reaction is still running
on "high". DON'T OVERKNEAD. You do not want the traditional
"smooth, elastic" ball of dough you would expect with
a yeast bread; you simply want one that contains almost everything
that went into the bowl, in one mostly cohesive lump. You should
not spend more than half a minute or so kneading...the less time,
the better. You don't want
to develop the gluten in the flour at all. If you do, you'll get
a tough loaf. Don't be concerned if the dough is somewhat sticky:
flour your hands, and the dough, and keep going as quickly as you
can. There is a whole spectrum of "wetness" for soda bread
dough in which it's possible to produce prefectly good results:
I've found that farl in particular sometimes rises better if the
dough is initially wet enough to be actively sticky. You're likely
to have to experiment a few times, as I said, to come to recognize
the right texture of dough.
you're done kneading, shape the bread. For cake, flatten the lump
of dough to a slightly domed circle or flat hemisphere about 6-8
inches in diameter, and put it on the baking sheet (which should
be dusted lightly with flour first). Then use a very sharp knife
to cut a cross right across the circle: the cuts should go about
down through the sides of the circle of dough, so that the loaf
will "flower" properly. If you're making farl, use the
same very sharp knife to cut the circle of dough into four wedges.
Try not to crush or compress the dough where you cut it (if the
knife is sharp enough, you won't). A clean slicing motion is what's
bake. When putting cake in the oven, handle it lightly and don't
jar it: the CO2 bubbles are vulnerable at this point of the process.
Let the bread alone, and don't peek at it. It should bake for 45
minutes at 400-450F. (One local source suggests you give it the
first 10 minutes at 450, then decrease to 400. I would agree with
making farl, dust the hot griddle or frying pan with a very little
flour, and put the farls on/in gently. The cut edges should be 1/2
inch or so apart to allow for expansion. Give the farls 20 minutes
on a side: they should be a sort of mocha-toasty color before you
turn them. Keep an eye on the heat -- they scorch easily. The heat
should be quite
"slow". When finished, take the farls off the heat and
wrap them in a light dishtowel, hot side down. (The residual steam
works its way up through the soda bread and softens the crust formed
by the process of baking on the griddle, making it more amenable
to being split and toasted later.)
you're making cake: At the end of 45 minutes, pick up the loaf and
tap the bottom. A hollow-ish sound means it's done. For a very crunchy
crust, put on a rack to cool. For a softer crust, as above, wrap
the cake in a clean dishcloth as soon as it comes out of the oven.
ways, the soda bread is wonderful sliced or split and served hot,
with sweet butter and/or the jam or jelly of your choice.
farl is also one of the most important ingredients of the Ulster
Fry, the world's most dangerous breakfast (nothing whatsoever to
do with its area of origin: it's the cholesterol....). Fried eggs,
fried Irish bacon, fried soda farl, fried potato farl (a 1/4-inch
thick potato bread, also cooked on a griddle), fried black pudding,
fried sausages, fried tomatoes, fried mushrooms...you get the picture.
Not to be eaten every morning, and not for those closely watching
their fat intake...but wonderful every now and then.
people have begun resurrecting the art of baking soda bread "in
the pot", on the hearth, as was done in this country for many
years before the average householder could afford a luxury like
an oven. The traditional vessel is a kind of Dutch oven which has
come to be known on this side of the water as the "Bastable
oven". This is an iron pot about 18-20" in diameter, with
a concave lid. The bread (treated as for "cake") would
be put in the preheated pot: the pot would be
covered and put down into the coals of the fire, and more coals
piled on top. This approach produces a soda bread which rises wonderfully
and bakes with great evenness. The smell ofthe bread, suddenly released
on opening the pot, is ravishing.
* * *
raisins, and maybe another teaspoon of sugar.
1/2 lb flour, 4 oz currants, 4 oz raisins, 2 oz mixed
candied peel, 3 oz butter, 1 tsp bicarb, 1 tsp cream of
tartar, 1/2 tsp salt, 2 tablespoons sugar, buttermilk to
mix (judge it by eye, as above). Sieve the dry ingredients
together; rub in the butter; add the fruit. Add the
buttermilk, roll out very lightly, cut into farls, and
bake as for farl above.
about 1 cup of fine-ground cornmeal for a cup
of the flour. One of my sources tells me this works better
as cake than as farl.
really heretical variation:
chopped Jalapeno peppers to the dry ingredients. Mix
and bake as above. (Diane adds: Mum will probably whack
me one if she ever catches me doing this. But it does
* * *
"Brown soda" / "wheaten bread":
cups whole wheat flour
1 cup white flour
Scant 1/2 cup oatmeal
1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda
1 teaspoon salt
2-3 cups sour milk or buttermilk
and bake exactly as for "plain soda" above. If you have
trouble with this one rising, your local mixture of whole wheat
flour may be responsible: try decreasing the amount of whole wheat
and increasing the white flour.
* * *
tablespoons dark molasses
7 fl oz milk (approximately)
1 1/2 tablespoons sugar
1 lb flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda
Good pinch of ground ginger
the molasses and milk together. Mix all dry ingredients together:
add liquid until a soft dough is achieved. With floured hands, shape
into a round cake about 1 1/2 inches thick. Cut into farls, put
on a floured baking sheet and bake at 400F for 40 minutes.
3 oz Rice flour
2 oz Treacle (by weight)
2 oz Butter
2 oz Ground almonds
1/4 lb Raisins
2 oz Candied peel
1/2 ts Ground ginger
3 tb Sour milk or sour cream
1/2 ts Bread soda
flour with soda and ginger, mix with rice flour and
rub in the butter. Stir in ground almonds, halved raisins
and sliced peel. Mix treacle with milk or sour cream and
well-beaten egg, and mix with the dry ingredients. Turn into
a well-buttered pan and bake 1 1/4 hours in a moderate oven
4 oz Margarine
2 oz Butter
6 oz Sugar
2 ts Baking powder
1 ts Caraway seeds
3 oz Candied peel
A little milk
1/4 ts Salt
together flour, baking powder and salt. Rub in margarine and butter,
add sugar, seeds and thinly sliced peel. Add beaten eggs with enough
milk to make a light dough. Place in a well-greased loaf pan and
bake 1-1/2 hours in a moderate oven (375F).
1 ts Baking powder
3/4 ts Salt
3 tb Margarine or other fat
2/3 c Milk (roughly)
together flour, salt and baking powder. Cut in the shortening. Mix
in the milk to make a soft dough. When kneaded, rolled and cut out,
bake 10-12 minutes in a hot oven (450F).
2 oz Sugar
1 c Minced apples
1 Beaten egg
the above to the basic scone mixture, mix well, put in a flat greased
pan, and bake 25 minutes in a hot oven (450F). Cut into sections
when done: split, butter and serve hot. Dust the tops thickly with
1/4 lb Raisins, sultanas or currants, or a mixture of all three
12 to 15 minutes at 450F.
the basic recipe. Roll 1/4 inch thick. Cut into three-inch rounds
with floured cutter. Place a teaspoon of any jam in center, fold
over, press edges together tightly, brush the tops with milk or
beaten egg, and bake 10-12 minutes in hot oven (450F).
1 ts Bicarbonate of soda
1/2 ts Salt
3 oz Shortening
3/4 c Sour milk or buttermilk
together flour, soda and salt. Add shortening. Beat egg slightly,
add milk, add to first mixture. Roll out about 1/2 inch thick, cut
with fluted cutter. Place on greased cookie sheet. Bake in hot oven
(450-475F) about 15 minutes.
Large chicken (about 4 lb)*
2 T Butter
1 Shallot or small onion
1 pinch Ground cloves
1 pinch Ground allspice
300 ml Chicken stock
12 Slices bacon
Salt and pepper
8 oz Clarified butter
two small ones. -- Boil the chicken(s) lightly. Remove the meat
from the chicken, then bone and skin it. Mince until fairly fine.
Season with salt, the pepper, and spices, and the finely chopped
onion or shallot, then stir in stock and run through blender or
well a deep casserole or dish and stretch the bacon slices with a
knife, then line the dish with them, reserving some for the top. Pour
in the meat mixture and level off. Dot the top with butter. Lay the
rest of the bacon on top. Cover with foil and a lid. Stand the casserole
in a container of hot water reaching halfway up the side of the casserole.
Bake at 180C/350F for about 1 1/2 - 2 hours. When ready, run a knife
around the edges and leave to get cold. When cold, press down with
a spoon, pour the clarified butter over the top, and keep in a cold
place until needed. Serves 8-10.
cup shredded Swiss, Blarney or Cheddar cheese
1/2 cup chopped ham
1/4 cup chopped cooked spinach
3 tablespoons mango chutney
2 packages refrigerated biscuits (10 per package)
1/4 cup milk
1/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese
Combine cheese, ham, spinach and chutney.
biscuits and flatten each into 3-inch circle. Place about 1 heaping
teaspoon cheese mixture into center of each circle. Fold over enough
dough to seal edges, using a little cold water if necessary. Place
seam-side down on greased baking sheets.
together egg and milk, and using pastry brush coat each biscuit.
Sprinkle with Parmesan cheese. Bake at 350 degrees 12 minutes or
until golden. Serve warm. Makes 20 cheese biscuits.
biscuit: 144 calories; 7.5 g fat (2.5 g saturated fat; 47 percent
calories from fat); 18 mg cholesterol; 385 mg sodium; 14.0 g carbohydrates.
Soups & Stews
And Apple Soup
1 lb Parsnips, thinly sliced
1 lb Apples, peeled/cored/sliced
1 Med. onion, chopped
2 t Curry powder
1 t Ground cumin
1 t Ground coriander
1/2 t Cardamom
1 Large clove garlic, crushed
1-1/4 l Beef or chicken stock
150 ml Cream
Salt and pepper
Chopped chives or parsley
the butter, and when foaming, add the parsnips, apples, and onions.
Soften them but do not let them color. Add the curry powder, the
spices and garlic; cook for about 2 minutes, stirring well. Pour
in the stock slowly, stirring until well mixed. Cover and simmer
gently for about half an hour, or until the parsnips are quite soft.
Taste for seasoning. Sive or liquidize, and if it seems too thick,
dilute with a little stock or water. Add the cream and reheat, but
do not let it
boil. Serve garnished with chopped chives or parsley.
g Peas, freshly shelled
2 T Butter
1 Medium-sized onion, chopped
1 Head iceberg lettuce/chopped
1 Sprig mint, chopped
1 Sprig parsley, chopped
3 Strips bacon, chopped
1-1/2 l Ham stock
Salt and pepper
shelling the peas, save the pods, wash them and put them to boil
in the ham stock while preparing the soup. Heat the butter in a
large saucepan and soften the onion in it, then add the lettuce,
mint and parsley. De-rind and chop
the bacon. Fry it for about 2 minutes, turning it from time to time;
add to the saucepan with the peas, salt, pepper and a small amount
of sugar. Strain the stock and add. Bring to the boil, stirring,
then simmer for about half an hour
until the peas are quite soft. Sive or liquidize, taste for seasonings
and add a little milk or cream if needed (but not too much, for
the fresh flavor must be preserved). Garnish with chopped parsley
3 oz Butter
Large onion, chopped
2 T Flour (heaped)
2-1/2 l Stock
2 T Breadcrumbs
Salt and pepper
2 Egg yolks
150 ml Cream
the sorrel well and chop it up. Heat the butter in a saucepan and
just soften the sorrel and onion in it. Shake the flour over the
vegetables and mix well. Let it cook for about 1 minute. Meanwhile
bring the stock to the boil, then
add to the pan. Add the breadcrumbs, season to taste, and bring
to the boil, then simmer for about 1 hour covered. (It can be liquidized
at this point, but needn't be.) Beat the egg yolks with the cream
and add a little of the hot soup to
the mixture, stirring well; then add gradually to the soup pot,
stirring well, over the heat, but being careful not to let it boil.
4 large baking potatoes, divided
4 medium onions, divided
2-1/2 cups water
Ground black pepper
2 large carrots, scraped and sliced
1 tablespoon minced parsley
the word "stew" means to cook a long time and because
stewing will tenderize the toughest pieces, we recommend shoulder.
Cut off as much fat as you can, and remove any bones. Cut the meat
into bite-sized pieces.
some of the fat into a Dutch oven or large pot, or use a couple
of tablespoons of butter. Over medium heat, melt enough fat to make
a couple of tablespoonfuls. Remove the rest of the fat and throw
the meat in the rendered fat. Peel and slice 2 potatoes. Add the
slices to the pot. Peel and chop 1 onion and add it to the pot.
Pour in the water. Season with a little salt and pepper, to taste.
Bring the liquid to a boil. Skim off any scum and discard. Reduce
heat to very low. Cover and simmer for 1 hour.
the remaining 2 potatoes. Cut them in half lengthwise and slice
into 1/4-inch pieces. Add to the pot. Peel the other 3 onions, cut
them into eighths, and add them to the pot. Add the carrot slices.
the liquid to a boil. Cover the pot and simmer for another hour.
Serve in soup bowls, each bowl garnished with a little of the parsley.
recipe will serve six. Serve with Irish soda bread.
serving: 580 calories; 20.9 g fat (8.2 g saturated
fat; 32 percent calories from fat); 45.3 g carbohydrates, 166
mg cholesterol; 229 mg sodium.
Bacon and Mussel Soup With Oatmeal-Herb 'Crust'
with the potato, food from the sea has sustained the Irish for centuries.
As an alternative to the meat recipes above, here's a hearty soup
that combines the distinctive flavor of mussels with the simplicity
of Irish bacon and
potatoes. The recipe was developed by Chef James Bowe of the Dublin
College of Catering.
1/4 cup white wine
1 pound mussels, washed and debearded
4 slices thick bacon, diced
3 leeks, washed end diced
2 medium onions, finely chopped
2 large potatoes, peeled and diced
1 quart chicken stock or canned broth
teaspoon dried thyme
2 tablespoons butter
1/4 cup Irish steel-cut oatmeal (such as McCann's)
1 tablespoon mixed herbs (parsley, dill, chives)
water and wine to boil in large saucepan. Add mussels and steam,
covered, 5 minutes or until mussels open. Discard any mussels that
do not open. Remove mussels from shells and reserve cooking liquid.
oil in large soup pot. Add bacon, leeks and onions and saute 2 to
3 minutes. Add potatoes and cook 2 minutes longer. Add stock and
thyme and bring to boil. Reduce heat and simmer 15 minutes. Stir
in reserved mussels and cooking liquid and cook 4 to 5 minutes longer.
butter in small pan and saute oatmeal until lightly browned. Add
salt, pepper and herbs and stir together. To serve, ladle soup into
bowls and sprinkle with oatmeal mixtureon top. Makes 4 servings.
serving: 579 calories; 22.6 g fat (6.9 g saturated fat; 35 percent
calories from fat); 78 mg cholesterol; 715 mg sodium; 58.2 g carbohydrates.
Bacon And Cabbage
1/2 lb Collar of bacon Medium-sized cabbage
in Ireland, "bacon" can mean *any* cut of pork exceptham.
When people here want what North Americans call bacon, they ask for
"rashers" or "streaky rashers". As far as I can
tell, "collar of bacon" is a cut from the hock, picnic shoulder,
or shoulder butt (I am here using terms from the diagram in THE JOY
OF COOKING). You want any thick cut of pork, with or without bones,
about four inches by four inches by four or five inches. It does not
have to have been salted first, but if you want to approximate the
taste of the real Irish thing, put it down in brine for a day or two,
then (when ready to cook it) bring to a boil first, boil about 10
minutes, change the water, and start the recipe from the
the joint in a pot, cover with cold water and bring to the boil,
Remove the scum that floats to the surface. Cover and simmer for
1 1/2 hours (or 30 minutes per pound). Cut cabbage into quarters
and add to pot. Cook gently for about 1/2 hour, or until cabbage
is cooked to your liking. (Test constantly: don't overdo it!) Drain,
and serve with potatoes boiled in their jackets, and a sharp sauce
-- mustard or (if you can get it) HP sauce.
lb Sirloin roast
2 fl Whiskey
10 fl Red wine
1 oz Butter
2 oz Flour
Salt and pepper
oven to 180C/350F. Wipe meat, season and place in a roasting pan.
Place pan in oven and cook for one hour. Add the whiskey and wine
to the pan. Cook for a further hour, basting once more. Remove the
roast from the pan, place on a serving dish and keep warm. Pour
off excess fat from the meat
juices, adding water to bring to about 15 oz. Beat the butter into
the flour to form a smooth paste. Add a little of the juices to
this and mix well, then pour onto juices, mixing again, and bring
to the boil. Simmer gently for 2-3 minutes
to cook flour. Correct the seasoning. If the sauce is too thick,
add a little more water. Serve separately in a gravy boat. Jacket
or mashed potatoes, and a cooked green vegetable (possibly broccoli)
go well with this, since the sauce is so rich.
Park Corned Beef and Cabbage
pound kosher salt
1 gallon water
1 fresh brisket of beef (7 to 8 pounds)
6 whole bay leaves
8 to 10 black peppercorns
1 large head cabbage, cored and quartered
1 bunch carrots, peeled and thickly sliced
1 large turnip, peeled and cut into 2-inch cubes
8 large potatoes, peeled and halved
together salt and water in large nonreactive pot. Add brisket and
allow to cure at least 48 hours. (Beef must becompletely covered,
so double the brine recipe if necessary.)
meat and add fresh water to cover along with bay leaves and peppercorns.
Cook, covered, over medium-high heat 3 to 3 1/2 hours or until fork-tender.
last 45 minutes of cooking time, add cabbage, carrots and turnip.
size of pot allows, add potatoes as well. (Alternately carrots,
turnip and potatoes can be boiled separately.) Allow beef to cool
down 15 to 20 minutes before carving. Makes 14 to16 servings.
The analysis is based on 14 servings.
serving: 618 calories; 35.0 g fat (11.6 g saturated fat; 51 percent
calories from fat); 178 mg cholesterol; 2,102 mg sodium; 38.3 g
about 4.5 lb
4 oz Oatmeal
Medium onion, chopped
2 T Butter
3 T Stock
Salt and pepper
6 oz Bacon
3 Med. onions, sliced
2 lb Potatoes
3 T Dripping or oil
4 Med. carrots, sliced
there are giblets with the bird, take them out, wash all but the
liver (reserve that for another use), and cover with water, add
salt and pepper, bring to the boil and simmer for half an hour.
Wipe the bird inside and out and remove any lumps of fat from the
inside; sprinkle with salt. Mix together the oatmeal, chopped onion,
butter or suet, stock, and seasoning, stuff the bird with this mixture
and secure well. Heat the dripping or oil and lightly fry the bacon,
then chop and put into a casserole. Quickly brown the bird in the
same fat and put on top of the bacon. Soften the onionand briefly
saute the carrots, then add to the casserole.
the giblet stock and make it up to about 1/2 liter. Heat and pour
over the chicken. Cover and cook in a moderate oven (350C) for about
cut the potatoes into thick slices and blanch them in boiling water,
or steam them for about 5 minutes. Toss them in seasoned flour and
add them to the casserole, adding a little more of the giblet stock
if needed. Cover with
buttered wax paper and continue cooking for another 1/2 hour, taking
off the paper for the last few minutes for browning.
And Leek Pie
oz Shortcrust pastry
4 lb. chicken (approx.), jointed, chopped, and boned
4 Slices ham steak
4 Large leeks, cleaned/chopped
Salt and pepper
1 pinch Ground mace or nutmeg
300 ml Chicken stock
125 ml Double cream
the pastry and leave it in a cold place to rest. Meanwhile prepare
the pie. IN a deep 1 - 1 1/2 quart dish, place layers of the chicken,
the ham, leeks and onion or shallot, adding the mace, nutmeg and
seasoning, then repeating the layers until the dish is full. Add
the stock, then dampen the edges of the dish before rolling out
the pastry to the required size. Place the pastry over the pie and
press the edges down well. Crimp them with a fork. Make a small
in the center. Roll out the scraps of pastry and form a leaf or
rosette for the top. Place this very lightly over the small hole.
Brush the pastry with milk, and bake at moderate heat, 350F, for
25-30 minutes. Cover the pastry with damp
greaseproof paper when partially cooked if the top seems to be getting
too brown. Gently heat the cream. When pie is cooked, remove from
oven. Carefully lift off the rosette and pour the cream in through
the hole. Put back the rosette and serve. (This pie forms a delicious
soft jelly when cold.)