The Preparation of âdhân (Ears)
Knead white flour with water and oil without leaven,
then roll out little thin qursas, like the qursas
of aqrû n, and let them be as big as the palm of a hand
or bigger. Fold in two, and mix fold with fold, and open their
edges, and fry, after inserting thin sticks into them so that
the open ends do not seal. And when they are fried, make a filling
of pistachios or almonds and sugar and knead with rosewater, and
stuff the "ears" with them. Whoever wishes to aromatize the stuffing
[with spices] may. Then pour into a plate and moisten with stiffly
thickened rosewater syrup, after sprinkling with rosewater. And
sprinkle with sugar, galingale [literally, "wood"], clove and
ground cinnamon and use.
The "mix fold with fold" instruction is vague,
but we may proceed on the assumption that the product will look
like an ear when fried. I must say that the prospect of eating
an "ear" stuffed with green paste bothers me. (CP)
2 cups White Flour 1 cup Pistachios or Almond,
½ cup Olive Oil ½ cup Sugar
Water 2 tbs. Rosewater
Olive Oil for Frying
¼ cup Rosewater Sugar
3/4 cup Water ½ tsp. Galingale*
2 cups Sugar ¼ tsp. Clove, ground
½ tsp. Cinnamon, ground
Make the pastry dough with the flour and oil, adding
as much water as neccessary. This will make a very soft pastry dough,
be prepared. Let the dough rest for at least a half-hour.
While the dough is resting make a sugar syrup with
the rosewater, sugar and water. Cook in a thick bottom pot until
thick (about 200F.). Cool and reserve. Mix the topping ingredients
When the dough has rested, form small balls of the
dough and then roll into circles approximately 4 inches in diameter
and a ¼ inch thick. Fold circles in half, form into a cone with
a open end at the point. Deep fat fry in the other olive oil. Drain.
If you have access to a food processor, grind your
nuts in it. When they are processed add the sugar and rosewater
so that it stick together. Fill the cones or ears with the nut mixture.
Drizzle with rose syrup. Sprinkle with the topping mixture.
*note: This is hard to find, but not impossible.
I substituted Ginger, relative of it.
Stuffed Muqawwara, a Hollowed Pastry
Sift a ratl and a half of wheat flour
[p. 29 verso] well, knead it with the yolks of fifteen eggs and
as much fresh milk as they will bear. Put in a little leavening
and let the dough be stiff, make a qursa like a raghîf
of this, and leave it to rise. Then fill a frying pan with
fresh oil and take it to the fire, and when it has heated, put
in the raghîf , turn it little by little, and watch that
it not break apart. Then turn it over and when it has browned
a little, take it out and put it in a dish and hollow it out as
one hollow out muqawwara . Take out all the crumbs that
are in it and crumble it by hand until they are pounded fine.
Then take sufficient peeled walnuts and almonds and sugar, pound
them well and put a layer in the muqawwara , then a layer
of crumbs, until it is full; and sprinkle sugar between every
two layers and sprinkle during that with rosewater. Then boil
fresh clarified butter and good honey, pour it on the muqawwara
and when it makes a boiling sound, put the lid [the removed
crust] back on top and seal it, and pour the rest of the honey
and butter over the lid, sprinkle with sugar, and present it.
5 to 6 cups Flour Crumbs from Pastry
8 to 10 Yolks ½ cup Walnuts, ground
¼ cup Milk ½ cup Almonds, ground
1 package Yeast dissolved in water ½ cup Sugar
Olive Oil app 2 tbs. Rosewater
8 oz. Butter (if you are using unsalted butter
add ½ tsp. of salt)
1 ½ cup Honey
Dissolve the Yeast in ¼ cup warm water. Add all
the pastry ingredients together. Mix as if making bread dough. Leave
to rise. After the first rising punch down, form into balls approximately
the size of a lime. Deep fat fry in the Olive oil. Drain.
When cool, take a sharp knife and cut off the top
quarter of each of the pastries, reserve tops. Hollow out each one
and reserve the crumbs for the filling.
Mix the walnuts with the almonds. Fill each of the
pastries with layers of each of the fillings in turn – nut layer,
crumb layer, and a sugar layer. Sprinkle with the rosewater in between
layers. Fill to the top.
Melt the butter in a heavy bottom kettle. Add the
honey. Bring to a boil, cooking until thick. While still hot ladle
syrup into each pastry, replace top and seal with more syrup. Let
Khabîsa with Pomegranate
Take half a ratl of sugar and put it
in a metal or earthenware pot and pour in three ratls of
juice of sweet table pomegranates [ rummân sufri ; probably
tart pomegranates were more common in cooking] and half an û
qiya of rosewater, with a penetrating smell. Boil it gently
and after two boilings, add half a mudd of semolina and
boil it until the semolina is cooked. Throw in the weight of a
quarter dirham of ground and sifted saffron, and three
û qiyas of almonds. Put it in a dish and sprinkle over
it the like of pounded sugar, and make balls [literally, hazelnuts]
2 ½ cups Sugar
3 tbs. Pomegranate Syrup
2 ½ cups Water
1/3 cup Rosewater
1 1/3 to 1 ½ lbs. Semolina, Fine Grain
10 to 12 oz. Ground Almonds
4 or 5 threads of Saffron
Power Sugar to roll in
Add sugar, pomegranate syrup, water and rosewater
together. Bring to boil, cooking until the syrup stage (approximately
200 F). Add the Semolina, cook until done. Soak Saffron in 2-tbs.
warm water, until colored. Add saffron water and almonds to Semolina
Let cool down until you can handle it. Form into
balls about the size of a walnut. Roll balls in powered sugar. Serve,
makes about 60 balls.
Recipe for Mujabbana (Fried Cheese Pie)
Know that mujabbana isn't prepared with
only one cheese, but of two; that is, of cow's and sheep's milk
cheese. Because if you make it with only sheep cheese, it falls
apart and the cheese leaves it and it runs. And if you make it
with cow's cheese, it binds, and lets the water run and becomes
one sole mass and the parts don't separate. The principle in making
it is that the two cheeses bind together. Use one-fourth part
cow's milk and three-quarters of sheep's. Knead all until [p.
64, recto] some binds with its parts another [Huici Miranda observes
that this passage is faintly written and only a few letters can
be made out] and becomes equal and holds together and doesn't
run in the frying pan, but without hardening or congealing. If
you need to soften it, soften it with fresh milk, recently milked
from the cow. And let the cheese not be very fresh, but strong
without...[words missing]...that the moisture has gone out of.
Thus do the people of our land make it in the west of al-Andalus
, as in Cordoba and Seville and Jerez , and elsewhere in
the the land of the West [here written as al-Maghrib ].
Manner of Making it
Knead wheat or semolina flour with some yeast
into a well-made dough and moisten it with water little by little
until it loosens. If you moisten it with fresh milk instead of
water it is better, and easy, inasmuch as you make it with your
palm. Roll it out and let it not have the consistency of mushahhada
, but firmer than that, and lighter than musammana dough.
When the leaven begins to enter it, put the frying pan on the
fire with a lot of oil, so that it is drenched with what you fry
it with. Then wet your hand in water and cut off a piece of the
dough. Bury inside it the same amount of rubbed cheese. Squeeze
it with your hand, and whatever leaves and drains from the hand,
gather it up [? the meaning of this verb eludes me] carefully.
Put it in the frying pan while the oil boils. When it has browned,
remove it with an iron hook prepared for it and put it in a dipper
["iron hand"] similar to a sieve held above the frying pan, until
its oil drips out. Then put it on a big platter and dust it with
a lot of sugar and ground cinnamon. There are those who eat it
with honey or rose syrup and it is the best you can eat.
2 cups Flour, white or Semolina 8 oz. Farmers
1 pkg. Yeast 8 oz. Cream Cheese
½ cup Milk or Water (more might be need) Salt
Olive oil for Frying
Sugar and ground Cinnamon
Optional: Honey or Rosewater/ Sugar Syrup
Heat the olive oil to frying tempura.
Proof the yeast in ¼ cup warm (not hot water) water,
add a little sugar and/or flour if neccessary. Add the proofed yeast
to flour. Add water or milk to flour mixture until you have a smooth
dough. Cover and let rest until it has risen.
Mix the cheeses together. Taste, add salt if nessairy.
Roll out (or pat out)dough till about ¼ inch thick
and 5 to 6 inches around. Take a palm full of cheese mixture, mold
together in your hand. Place in side of dough circle and fold the
dough around it and seal. It should look like a turn-over.
Fry in oil, turning over so to brown both sides.
Drain. Dust with sugar and cinnamon, if you would like coat in a
sugar syrup flavored with rose-water.
Recipe of the Necessities of Bread and Confection
Take a ratl of wheat flour and knead
it with twenty egg yolks, a little water and oil. Then make small,
very thin round flatbreads of it, and as soon as they are made,
fry them in plenty of oil until they are close to browning. Put
them in a dish, boil honey a little and clean it of its foam,
and cut almonds and walnuts into the honey, pour it into the dish,
sprinkle with sugar, set whole pine-nuts about, and present it.
The word translated as "necessaries" ( hawâ'ij
), which can also mean "things," is used in some cookery
writings to mean ingredients other than spices added for flavoring.
2 cups flour 10 egg yolks or 4 whole eggs
2 to 3 tablespoons of water 2 to 3 tablespoons
of olive oil
Olive oil for frying
1 to 1 ½ cups honey ¼ cup chopped almonds
¼ cup chopped walnuts
sugar and pine-nuts for decoration
Mix the flour and egg yolks (or eggs) together until
smooth batter. Add water and oil as nessary to achieve the texture
needed. (I see this as a crepe or pancake batter.) Pour batter on
to a frying pan to make small pancakes. Fry until they just become
colored. Move to a waiting plate with a small lip.
Heat the honey until warm. Add the nuts to it. Pour
honey mixture on to the waiting pancakes. Sprinkle with sugar and
The Making of Qâhiriyât
Take sugar and pound sweet almonds well; take
equal parts of each in a mortar and mix them and knead them with
fragrant rosewater, and perfume them with fine spices, like cinnamon,
Chinese cinnamon, lavender, pepper, galingale, and nutmeg. Add
these in proportion to what the sugar and almonds can bear. Beat
all this well and the kneading will be stronger. Then make small
rings of this in the shape of ka'k . Then take a ratl
or half a ratl of fine flour or as much as the sugar
and crushed almonds can bear, knead it with khubaiz and
salt and leave it until it rises. Then take some starch and put
into that starch the dough with water. Then take a frying pan
and clean it well and put in some fresh oil, and if it is oil
of sweet almonds, it is better. Put this on the fire and when
the oil boils, take the rings made before, [p. 28 verso] one after
another, and dip [reading ghumisat forhummisat ]
them in that dough and throw them in that boiling oil, so that
they cook before they are taken out, and they have begun to brown
a very little. Arrange and order them on a dish in an attractive
order. Then pour over them skimmed honey from the comb, or well-thickened
julep syrup [i.e. rose-flavored sugar syrup], and sprinkle with
ground sugar and present it, God willing.
Almonds, ground * Yeast
Spices: starch, Wheat or Rice
Olive Oil for Frying
Honey or Rose syrup
*Note – Almond Paste can be substituted.
Heat oil to frying tempura. Proof yeast.
Grind the sugar and almonds in a food processor
until it forms a paste, or use Almond paste. Mix the spices of you
choice in the almond paste. Form into rings.
Mix flour and yeast together. Add starch and water
to form a thin batter. Coat the rings in the batter and fry until
golden. Drain. Coat in honey or Rose flavored syrup, sprinkle with